I Ask This Of You!

I have Parkinson's diseases and thought it would be nice to have a place where the contents of updated news is found in one place. That is why I began this blog.

I copy news articles pertaining to research, news and information for Parkinson's disease, Dementia, the Brain, Depression and Parkinson's with Dystonia. I also post about Fundraising for Parkinson's disease and events. I try to be up-to-date as possible.

I am not responsible for it's contents. I am just a copier of information searched on the computer. Please understand the copies are just that, copies and at times, I am unable to enlarge the wording or keep it uniformed as I wish.

This is for you to read and to always keep an open mind.

Please discuss this with your doctor, should you have any questions, or concerns.

Never do anything without talking to your doctor. I do not make any money from this website. I volunteer my time to help all of us to be informed. I will not accept any information about Herbal treatments curing Parkinson's, dementia and etc. It will go into Spam.

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Tuesday, July 17, 2018

Parkinson’s Disease Pathogenesis may have a Bacterial Virus Component According to Research Conducted by Human Microbiology Institute

NEW YORK, July 17, 2018

Human Microbiology Institute (HMI), a not-for-profit scientific research organization, and Tetz Laboratories today announced the publication of a study in Scientific Reports that for the first time may implicate bacterial viruses (bacteriophages) in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). The article, entitled “Parkinson’s disease and bacteriophages as its overlooked contributors” is available online here:

Changes in the gut microbiome have previously been associated with a variety of human diseases, including inflammatory conditions and neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson’s disease. Research for the first time has suggested that Lactococcus bacteriophages lead to an alteration in abundance of certain gut bacteria that have profound effects on the enteric nervous system, resulting in changes in neurotransmitter production. In addition, altered microbiota can lead to increased intestinal permeability resulting in systemic inflammation; both of these conditions are known as important triggers of PD.

Research at HMI was the first to identify bacteriophages as potentially new human pathogens, which has the potential to create new opportunities to treat and diagnosis of phage-associated diseases. The studies demonstrated that bacterial viruses are intrinsically involved in many complex diseases with unknown etiology, by different ways including protein misfolding. Humans are constantly exposed to bacteriophages, which can enter the body through interaction with the environment and the consumption of water and food. HMI has demonstrated that bacteriophages can impact the gut microbiota in ways that promote disease and, therefore, should be a target for more extensive research.

This newly-published study evaluated a published genomic data set to analyze differences in bacteriophage composition and the microbiome in 31 treatment-naïve (tissue samples obtained before initiation of L-DOPA therapy), early-stage PD patients and 28 control individuals. Bacteria and phages were identified using metagenomics analysis and a unique algorithm for bacteriophages identification developed by the authors of the research. The key results were:
  • Bacteriophages caused a depletion of several gut microbiome species in the PD patients compared to the control group. The most pronounced change was a 10-fold decrease in Lactococcus. Reduction of Lactococcus is particularly relevant, as they are known to be a source of microbiota-derived neurochemicals including dopamine and reductions in prevalence are associated with increased gut permeability. 
  • Unlike the control group, patients with PD had elevated levels of strictly virulent, lytic Lactococcus phages that caused a significant shift in relative abundance of Lactococcus bacteria.
  • Researchers concluded that bacteriophages altered the microbiota of patients, leading to functional shifts that may be implicated in the pathogenesis of PD.
“We have already published five studies demonstrating that bacteriophages can impact the gut microbiome in ways that could cause disease,” said George Tetz, head of the R&D department of the HMI. “In this study, we demonstrated that differences in the relative abundance of the microbiome in PD patients differs from healthy controls and this difference can be associated with changes in the relative abundance of bacteriophages. We believe that bacteriophages should be included as a previously overlooked factor associated with the development of PD. This opens the discussion for the use of bacteriophages as a novel therapeutic target as well as a diagnostic tool for patients with Parkinson’s disease.”

About The Human Microbiology Institute 
The Human Microbiology Institute (HMI), founded in 2015 by pioneers in phagobiome research father and son Victor and George Tetz, is an independent, not-for-profit research organization HMI performs breakthrough research for the public interest that results in novel translational approaches to medicine. HMI is addressing some of society’s biggest medical challenges and unmet medical needs in such areas as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, dementia, metabolic disorders, various cancers, age-related infectious diseases, spreading of antibiotic resistance, etc.

HMI Contact:
George Tetz, M.D., Ph.D.

Media Contact:
Joanna Zimmerman
The Ruth Group

Researchers Trace Parkinson's Damage in the Heart


PET scans help visualize mechanisms behind nerve damage common among Parkinson’s patients, could help diagnose the disease earlier

A new way to examine stress and inflammation in the heart will help Parkinson’s researchers test new therapies and explore an unappreciated way the disease puts people at risk of falls and hospitalization.

By the time Parkinson’s disease patients are diagnosed — typically based on the tremors and motor-control symptoms most associated with the disease — about 60 percent of them also have serious damage to the heart’s connections to the sympathetic nervous system. When healthy, those nerves spur the heart to accelerate its pumping to match quick changes in activity and blood pressure.

“This neural degeneration in the heart means patients’ bodies are less prepared to respond to stress and to simple changes like standing up,” said Marina Emborg, a University of Wisconsin–Madison professor of medical physics and Parkinson’s researcher at the Wisconsin National Primate Research Center. “They have increased risk for fatigue, fainting and falling that can cause injury and complicate other symptoms of the disease.”

Emborg, graduate student Jeanette Metzger, and colleagues including UW–Madison specialists in cardiology and medical imaging developed a method for tracking the mechanisms that cause the damage to heart nerve cells. They tested the method in the human-like nervous system and heart of monkeys, and published their results in the journal npj Parkinson’s Disease.

Ten rhesus macaque monkeys served as models for Parkinson’s symptoms, receiving doses of a neurotoxin that caused damage to the nerves in their hearts in much the same way Parkinson’s affects human patients. Once before and twice in the weeks after, the monkeys underwent positron emission tomography (PET) scans to track chemical processes in the body using radioactive tracers.

The UW–Madison researchers used three different tracers, called radioligands, to map three different things in the left ventricle (the strongest pumping chamber) of monkeys’ hearts:
  • Where the nerves extending into the heart muscle were damaged;
  • Where the heart tissue was experiencing the most inflammation; and
  • Where they found the most oxidative stress.
The scans were accurate enough to allow the researchers to focus on changes over time in specific areas of the heart’s left ventricle.

“We know there is damage in the heart in Parkinson’s, but we haven’t been able to look at exactly what’s causing it,” said Metzger, lead author of the study. “Now we can visualize in detail where inflammation and oxidative stress are happening in the heart, and how that relates to how Parkinson’s patients lose those neuronal connections in the heart.”

By tracing the progression of nerve damage and the progression of potential causes of that damage, the radioligands can also be used to test the efficacy of new treatments to protect the neurons that regulate the activity of the patients’ hearts.

The researchers gave half the monkeys in the study a drug, pioglitazone, that has shown promise in protecting central nervous system cells from inflammation and oxidative stress.

“The recovery of nerve function is much greater in the pioglitazone-treated animals,” said Emborg, whose work is supported by the National Institutes of Health. “And what’s interesting is this method allows us to identify very specifically the differences the treatment made — separately for inflammation and for oxidative stress — across the heart.”

The results suggest human patients could benefit from the radioligand scans, and Metzger wonders if it could help catch some Parkinson’s patients before their other symptoms progress.

“Much of the neural degeneration that occurs in the heart can happen very early in the course of the disease. A lot of patients have problems with their heart before they have motor problems,” she said. “While these PET techniques potentially provide a way to test drugs, they may also be used as tools to understand the mechanisms underlying early heart nerve damage.”

The heart problems opened to examination by the new imaging methods are not limited to Parkinson’s disease. Heart attacks, diabetes and other disorders cause similar damage to nerves in the heart, and those patients and potential therapies could also benefit from the new visualization method.

Emborg and Metzger’s UW–Madison collaborators included psychology Professor Emerita Colleen Moore, cardiovascular medicine Professor Timothy Kamp, neurology Professor Catherine Gallagher, and medical physics Professor Bradley Christian and emeritus professors Jerry Nickels and James Holden.

For more information:


FoxFeed Blog: Latest Trials against Top Parkinson's Protein Alpha-synuclein

Maggie McGuire Kuhl,      July 17, 2018

One of the most promising approaches to stopping Parkinson's is to target the rogue protein alpha-synuclein. Six clinical trials are testing therapies with this goal.
In Parkinson's, alpha-synuclein clumps together to form aggregates called Lewy bodies, which scientists believe are toxic and lead to disease symptoms and progression. If researchers can prevent the protein from clumping into Lewy bodies, clear them out or stop their spread from cell to cell, they may stop Parkinson's disease (PD).
The Michael J. Fox Foundation has helped advance the development of therapies with that goal, directly funding some of the six projects now in human testing and providing resources to help design others. Here we share the latest updates from the field of alpha-synuclein clinical trials.
Introducing Antibodies against Alpha-Synuclein
  • One way scientists are going after alpha-synuclein is with antibodies: the body's immune system fighters. Biotechnology company Prothena is partnering with Roche to test its antibody (PRX002/RO7046015) against alpha-synuclein in people recently diagnosed with PD. Last month scientists published that the companies' antibody was safe in a Phase I trial in people with PD and lowered levels of alpha-synuclein in blood samples. The Phase II trial (called PASADENA) is taking place in Austria, France, Germany, Spain and the United States. Learn more on the study's website and see a list of recruiting sites on MJFF's trial matching site Fox Trial Finder.

  • Biogen is also testing an anti-alpha-synuclein antibody in people with Parkinson's in a Phase II trial (called the SPARK study). Enrollment is on hold for a short time while the company analyzes data from the first part of the trial. This hiatus was pre-planned to assess safety and understand how different doses work in the body. Stay tuned to our blog to hear when the Biogen trial is accepting new participants, and learn more about its eligibility criteria on the study website. You can also connect with your local study site on Fox Trial Finder.

  • AstraZeneca and Takeda are together testing an alpha-synuclein antibody in control volunteers at a single site in Dallas, Texas. Learn more and get contact information for the trial team.
Harnessing the Power of the Immune System to Protect Cells
  • Austrian biotech AFFiRiS found its vaccine, which prompts the body to produce alpha-synuclein antibodies (like the flu vaccine does against influenza), was safe and tolerable in a series of Phase I trials funded by MJFF. The studies tested six doses over four years, and scientists saw an immune response. "Clinical scores for PD were stable during the entire study period, however, the study was not designed and not powered to evaluate clinical efficacy," wrote the company in a press release. AFFiRiS is planning a Phase II trial to investigate the vaccine's efficacy.
Preventing Toxic Protein Clumps
  • MJFF-grantee Neuropore partnered with pharma company UCB to develop the NPT200-11/ UCB0599 compound, which binds to alpha-synuclein and blocks its accumulation. UCB is now planning a Phase Ib study to look for safety and tolerability in both control volunteers and people with Parkinson's at a single study site in Europe.

  • Proclara (formerly Neurophage) is developing NPT088, which can bind to proteins including alpha-synuclein, amyloid-beta and tau. (The latter two are implicated in Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia.) MJFF funding helped show NPT088 reduces protein aggregation in a PD model. Proclara is conducting a Phase I trial in people with Alzheimer's because there is a tool to visualize amyloid-beta protein in the brain, which will help assess how well NPT088 works. MJFF has prioritized the development of a similar imaging agent for alpha-synuclein. If that study is successful, Proclara will test NPT088 in people with Parkinson's. Learn more about the Alzheimer's trial.
These six therapeutics are forging ahead and even more are close on their heels and preparing for testing in human volunteers.
Questions about participating in clinical research? View our Trial Participant Pack for videos and a guidebook to learn more about the process and impact of enrolling in studies.
To view any of the above articles go to:

New grant offering signals increased role for infectious diseases specialists researching Alzheimer’s causation

July 17, 2018

Dr. Leslie Norins, an Emeritus member of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, is funding two grants to help researchers explore germs in Alzheimer's.

NAPLES, FL, UNITED STATES, July 17, 2018 / -- The recently announced offering of two research grants by the Infectious Diseases Society of America Foundation signals the timely addition of a relevant medical specialty to those already seeking the causes of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), says Leslie Norins, MD, PhD, founder and CEO of Alzheimer’s Germ Quest Inc. 

"Despite many clues suggesting infectious agents might be triggering Alzheimer’s disease, until now there have been too few infectious disease experts involved in researching this possibility.”

“This is the first time a major group of infectious disease experts feels it is worthwhile to examine the possibility of infection as a root cause of AD,” he says.

Dr. Norins predicts ripple effects far beyond the relatively small dollar amounts offered in these initial “seed research” offerings—$50,000 each—due to the stature of the group involved. The Foundation is the research and education arm of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA).

“With the recent evidence further implicating herpes virus as a possible trigger for AD, and the new concept that the amyloid plaques and tangles in the afflicted brain may represent the body’s immune reaction to infectious agents, there is no more pertinent specialty than infectious diseases to help extend these beachheads,” he says.  
IDSA is the principal U.S. organization for specialists in infectious diseases, Dr. Norins says, and among other activities provides board certification. It has over 11,000 members. He is an emeritus fellow of the group.  

Dr. Norins adds, “Despite many clues suggesting infectious agents might be triggering Alzheimer’s disease, until now there have been too few infectious disease experts involved in researching this possibility.” He attributes this lack of prior involvement to the paucity of research funds allocated by government and advocacy group funders for worthwhile investigations on infectious possibilities. “Most of the billions of dollars in AD grant money for years has been reserved for the more traditional studies of amyloid plaques and protein tangles. Now research on germ involvement must get a fair share,” he says.

The grants were made possible by a donation to the Foundation by Dr. Norins and his wife Rainey Norins. Grant applications can be obtained from

Alzheimer’s Germ Quest, Inc. is a public benefit corporation headquartered in Naples Florida. Its mission is to accelerate and deepen scientific investigations into the possible role of infectious agents as the root cause of Alzheimer’s disease. It is the sponsor of the $1 Million Alzheimer’s Germ Quest Challenge Award for scientists. (
Mollie Page Griffin
Alzheimer's Germ Quest

SUBMIT YOUR ABSTRACT: 5th World Parkinson Congress

The deadline to submit your abstract is November 23, 2018

What is an abstract? 
An abstract for the WPC is a short (maximum of 2,500 characters) written description of the subject and contents of your proposed poster. An abstract is submitted for review, and serves as an application to present a poster at the WPC 2016. After you submit your abstract, it will be reviewed by members of the WPC leadership, graded, and a decision will be made whether or not it would make an appropriate poster for the WPC 2019. If it is selected, you will be notified via email and at that point will need to begin working on the actual poster itself deciding how to display your work.

What is a poster? 
A poster is an actual poster made of paper that is created to display the subject matter of your written abstract to the public. A poster combines the text of your abstract with graphics to make a visually pleasing presentation of your subject matter. As viewers walk by, your poster should quickly and efficiently communicate your information. Posters allow viewers to study and restudy your information and discuss it with you one on one. You might think of it as a "one-page power-point” — a display that combines text and graphics to catch the eye and hold the viewer's interest.

What is the submission process?
First, we strongly encourage you to recruit a local health professional to help you think through your project and your abstract before submission. The abstract of your project should include an introduction, methods used to show the validity of your initiative or project, outcomes, etc. For example, do you have evidence that your program is bringing about change, such as a questionnaire or survey of patients affected by your program, or photos documenting change in health or posture before or after your program, or the results of your fund raising program? Maybe you hold town hall meetings with your political leaders and you can show that these communications are making change for the better. Share the details on how your group is actually making a difference with your program or project. 

The whole point of abstracts and posters (the poster being the actual display of your abstract, which is explained above) is to show what you are doing in a professional setting allowing people to talk to you about your work and to offer a chance for an exchange of ideas and possible collaborations. 

Designing your poster 
Posters are simply large, vertical or horizontal posters, with the details of your abstract printed in a way that will explain your project. You are able, in the poster, to elaborate and add additional details to your project, but it all needs to be contained in one poster for easy digestion by the readers and should include the aspects you submitted in your abstract, but in an elaborated manner. 

QR Codes (Quick Response Codes)
QR codes are two-dimensional matrix barcodes that can be encoded with information. The code must be scanned with an iPhone, Android or other camera-enabled Smartphone using a QR code reader application. You can link the code to digital content on the web. We will accept these codes on printed posters if you want to direct people to more information on your abstract's data.   

The WPC 2019 will accept poster abstracts from both health professionals engaged in research as well as from the community of people living with PD who are involved in activities and programs that are creating change for the PD community. 

Read about abstract topics and get ready for a lively poster session!

Scientific Posters*

All topics relevant to PD from anyone currently doing research in the field. This includes, but is not limited to research in basic & clinical sciences, best practices for care delivery, quality of life, and related themes. See samples what people submitted in 2013 by downloading the Abstracts of the WPC 2013, or the Abstracts of the WPC 2016

Living with Parkinson's Posters* 

Topics detailing initiatives that make a positive difference in living with PD. Examples might include fundraising or awareness campaigns, appeals to change government policy, projects to elicit feedback on the current status of managing the condition, or programs designed to improve communications in the world of Parkinson's. Individuals, teams, and organizations are encouraged to make submissions. See samples what people submitted in 2013 by downloading the Abstracts of the WPC 2013, or the Abstracts of the WPC 2016.

Poster Submission Details
Want an idea of what the application process is going to ask for before you create a profile? Download this summary of the application process so you can be prepared to submit everything in one sitting.   Please go to the original page to download: 

Not sure about submitting a poster? 

Will the WPC 2019 be your first scientific meeting? Don't let this keep you from submitting something. If you have a program or project you consider valuable to the larger PD community, talk to your peers and local support or organization about working on the poster together. This is a great opportunity for good projects and programs to be shared. What one group is doing in Small Town, USA may work well for another group in Small Town, South Africa. We will not know until the ideas are shared and discussions are had whether or not programs can be emulated and impactful in other settings and cultures.

While scientists and other health professionals are used to seeing poster displays at meetings, this may be a new idea for you. Please don't let this intimidate you. See below for more information that will help you to understand the steps required to exhibit a "Living With Parkinson's” poster at the WPC 2019.

Bedell Family YMCA assists with Parkinson’s disease management

July 17, 2018

Tom Erichsen completes an exercise movement as part of therapy prescribed for the Bedell Family YMCA's "Delay the Disease" program while other participants and program facilitator Scott Hunter look on. (Photo submitted)

More than 1 million Americans are living with Parkinson’s disease (PD), and there are nearly 60,000 new diagnoses each year. Seeing the need locally for a Parkinson’s disease management program, the Bedell Family YMCA began offering the OhioHealth "Delay the Disease" program for those struggling with the affliction in 2016.

"We're dedicated to helping people with Parkinson’s disease manage their symptoms and maintain a quality of life," Scott Hunter the Health Enhancement Director and facilitator of the Delay the Disease program said. "With this program, we’re helping to empower people with Parkinson’s to take control of the disease and also help manage it with daily exercise."

Parkinson’s disease is an incurable, slowly progressive movement disorder caused by the loss of nerve cells in a part of the brain that produces the chemical dopamine, which controls body movements. Symptoms, which develop when about 80 percent of dopamine has been lost, include tremors, stiffness or slowing of muscle movement, loss of balance and soft or slurred speech. Symptoms continue to worsen as the disease progresses.

One class participant, Tom Erichsen, shared his story of diagnosis and how the program has affected his daily life.
"I had shaking on my right side from my toes all the way up my arm and to my fingers,” he said.Erichsen was diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease in 2013.As an accountant who worked with computers, I couldn’t feel the keys, and I couldn’t write," he said.

Erichsen's local doctor referred him to a doctor in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, who specialized in movement disorders. That is where he learned his diagnosis.

"After being diagnosed with PD, I was started on a low dosage of medicine, which was gradually increased over time," he said. "My doctor then passed away unexpectedly, and I didn’t have any specialist to turn to for care. I eventually met with a different doctor in Denver, (Colorado,) where my daughter lives who did additional tests and got me on a regimen of three different pills for dopamine control. After finding the right dosage, it really helped with my shaking, and I was able to write again."

The doctor also encouraged his patient to begin physical therapy. Erichsen can see the positive effects from the "Delay the Disease" group, not only in himself, but also in other members of the group.

"I see people with more confidence, and I see them progressing," he said. "We ride bikes, up to two miles, lift some weights and do things like chair squats. Members get to do things at their own pace. We all have 'owies' of some sort or issues that we have to deal with – you can dwell inside (with them), but I think it just brings you out because other people are going through the same things. As you get older in life, you start comparing illnesses and stuff and find out what works and what doesn't."

Erichsen also said Hunter's willingness to adapt the class programming is what sets him apart. "Scott is always watching and diagnosing," Erichsen said. "He listens well and adapts the plan and the activities to enhance our practice."

For more information about the "Delay the Disease" program, contact Hunter at 712-336-9622 or

FoxFeed Blog: Ask the MD: Deep Brain Stimulation and Parkinson's Disease

July 17, 2018  
Rachel Dolhun, MD

Deep brain stimulation (DBS), a surgical therapy for Parkinson's disease, can ease motor symptoms, decrease medication needs and improve quality of life. But like all currently available therapies, it's not a cure, and it doesn't work for everyone.
DBS typically is considered for people who have had Parkinson's for four or more years and who develop dyskinesia (uncontrolled, involuntary movements) or significant "off" time (when symptoms return because medication isn't working optimally). It works best for motor symptoms such as tremor, stiffness and slowness. DBS doesn't work as well for balance problems, freezing (sudden inability to move) or non-motor symptoms.
Watch the video to learn who can benefit from DBS, what symptoms it treats and how the procedure is done.
Ask the MD has been made possible through the leadership of members of our Parkinson's Disease Education Consortium in conjunction with The Albert B. Glickman Parkinson's Disease Education Program. These partners' support allows us to furnish high-quality educational content to the Parkinson's community while maintaining our commitment to allocate donor dollars to high-impact research. Editorial control of all Michael J. Fox Foundation-published content rests solely with the Foundation.

Join ‘American Ninja Warrior’ Host Akbar Gbajabiamila for ‘Parkour 4 Parkinson’s’

July 16, 2018

Akbar Gbajabiamila is giving fans a chance to try a family-friendly “American Ninja Warrior” themed course… and it's for a good cause!

The “ANW” host teamed with the Michael J. Fox Foundation to launch the first “Parkour 4 Parkinson’s.” The benefit aims to raise $350,000 for Parkinson’s research.

The event, which takes place Aug. 5 at premiere trampoline gym DojoBoom in Thousand Oaks, CA, is open to all ages and experience levels, and will feature food, family-friendly activities and appearances by “ANW” athletes.
Akbar, whose father has Parkinson’s, joined the Board of Directors of The Michael J. Fox Foundation in March. He said in a statement, “Getting involved with The Michael J. Fox Foundation, and now hosting my own Team Fox event, gives me optimism every day, knowing I’m a part of an entire community working together to try and find a cure.”

What can you expect at Akbar’s Parkour 4 Parkinson’s? Special guests appearances from top Ninja Warriors, a chance to try, play and learn on a REAL ninja course PLUS tons more! Choose from two different time slots OR sign up for the VIP experience and have access to time on the course with top Ninja athletes, a VIP reception and special VIP swag bag! 

1 - 3 PM
4 - 6 PM
3 - 6 PM

This event is family friendly and geared for all ages- so grab the kids, grab the friends and come on out for Akbar Gbajabiamila’s PARKOUR 4 PARKINSON’S!    

Sunday, August 5

193 North Moorpark Road, Suite A
Thousand Oaks, CA 



EARLY TICKET (1PM - 3 PM)       $75.00
Entry includes full access to the gym floor for one hour, fan area and all of the super star ninjas! Jumpers will sign up for one hour time slot upon arrival, non-jumpers will have access to watch and take photo on the course! Be the first to get onto the gym floor and experience all of the fun! If purchasing multiple tickets, please include guest name(s), though that information is not required to complete transaction.

LATE TICKET (4 PM - 6 PM)           $75.00
Entry includes full access to the gym floor, fan area and all of the super star ninjas! Jumpers will sign up for one hour time slot upon arrival, non-jumpers will have access to watch and take photo on the course! If purchasing multiple tickets, please include guest name(s), though that information is not required to complete transaction.

VIP PACKAGE (3 - 6 PM)               $175.00
Enjoy exclusive time on the course with top Ninja athletes from 3 - 4PM, followed by a VIP reception with food, drink and a VIP Gift Bag with super special swag!

Kirk Gibson dealing with Parkinson's disease 'the best way I can'

July 16, 2018    By Steven Marcus

Former Los Angeles Dodgers outfielder Kirk Gibson throws out the ceremonial first pitch prior to an opening day baseball game between the Dodgers and the San Francisco Giants, Thursday, March 29, 2018, in Los Angeles. Photo Credit: AP / Mark J. Terrill