OCTOBER 13, 2016 Joana Fernandes, PhD
Welcome to Our Parkinson's Place
I copy news articles pertaining to research, news and information for Parkinson's disease, Dementia, the Brain, Depression and Parkinson's with Dystonia. I also post about Fundraising for Parkinson's disease and events. I try to be up-to-date as possible. I have Parkinson's diseases as well and thought it would be nice to have a place where updated news is in one place. That is why I began this blog.
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Friday, October 14, 2016
By: Dr. Victor Marchione | Brain Function | Friday, October 14, 2016
Depression often remains untreated in many Parkinson’s disease patients
Treatment options for patients with Parkinson’s disease and depression
October 14, 2016
Credit: University of Copenhagen
The coenzyme NAD+ plays a main role in aging processes. In mice and roundworm adding the substance can both extend life and postpone the onset of aging processes. New research conducted at the Center for Healthy Aging and the American National Institute of Health shows that this new knowledge will eventually be able to help patients with Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease.
As we live longer and longer, a lot of people are occupied with their state of health and, not least, quality of life in old age. Therefore, researchers all over the world are trying to understand aging mechanisms, as this knowledge may eventually help to postpone physical aging and extend life. None of the existing explanations of physical aging are able to explain all the biological aspects of human aging.
Substance Bridges Gap
Previous research has shown that a main process in aging is the capacity of the cells to keep our genes, our DNA, more or less intact. However, changes in the cells' power stations, the mitochondria, also affect aging processes. An international team of researchers from the Center for Healthy Aging at the University of Copenhagen and the National Institute of Health in the United States has shown that the substance NAD+ bridges the gap between two main aging theories - repairs to the DNA and poor functioning mitochondria. The results have just been published in the leading journal Cell Metabolism.
'Our new study shows an age-dependent decrease in the level of NAD+, and this decrease is far greater for organisms with early aging and a lack of DNA repairs. We were surprised to see that adding NAD+ postponed both the aging processes of the cells and extended life in worms and in a mouse model', says Professor Vilhelm Bohr from the Center for Healthy Aging and the National Institute of Health.
The researchers have bred mice and roundworm with the illness Ataxia telangiectasia, A-T, for the purpose of the study. In A-T patients the part of the brain that is responsible for coordination gradually degenerates, DNA repairs are lacking, and they experience other symptoms characteristic of early aging.
Adding NAD+ Postpones Aging
'We know from previous studies that a drop in the level of NAD+ results in metabolism errors, neurodegeneration and aging, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear to us. Our new study stresses that the substance NAD+ plays a main role both in maintaining the health of the cells' power stations and in their capacity for repairing the genes', says Professor Vilhelm Bohr.
The study also indicates that damage to the DNA can result in poor functioning mitochondria, and that this can lead to increasing neurodegeneration in A-T patients. Adding the substance NAD+ can stop the damage to the mitochondria.
Help for Patients in the Future
Even though the researchers have only examined the effect of the substance on model organisms and not administered the substance to patients, they expect to see the same effect in humans, as the cell repair mechanisms are universal for the cells of all living organisms. Understanding the universal mechanisms at cell level is key to understanding human aging and why we become more susceptible to illness as we grow older. Hopefully, this new knowledge will be able to help postpone physical aging processes and prevent illnesses such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease.
More information: Evandro Fei Fang et al. NAD+ Replenishment Improves Lifespan and Healthspan in Ataxia Telangiectasia Models via Mitophagy and DNA Repair, Cell Metabolism (2016). DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2016.09.004
Journal reference: Cell Metabolism
Provided by: University of Copenhagen
Thursday, October 13, 2016
Source: Carl Wonders – NIH/NINDS
Image Source: NeuroscienceNews.com image is credited to Ashe lab.
Original Research: Abstract for “Caspase-2 cleavage of tau reversibly impairs memory” by Xiaohui Zhao, Linda A Kotilinek, Benjamin Smith, Chris Hlynialuk, Kathleen Zahs, Martin Ramsden, James Cleary and Karen H Ashe in Nature Medicine. Published online October 10 2016 doi:10.1038/nm.4199
|This is a colorized scanning electron micrograph of a human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neuron in culture. NeuroscienceNews.com image is credited to Thomas Deerinck, National Center for Microscopy and Imaging Research, UC San Diego.|
Source: Scott LaFee – UCSD
•FAD mutations impair endocytosis and transcytosis of APP and lipoproteins
•Reduced lipoprotein endocytosis and transcytosis are rescued by β-secretase inhibition
We investigated early phenotypes caused by familial Alzheimer’s disease (fAD) mutations in isogenic human iPSC-derived neurons. Analysis of neurons carrying fAD PS1 or APP mutations introduced using genome editing technology at the endogenous loci revealed that fAD mutant neurons had previously unreported defects in the recycling state of endocytosis and soma-to-axon transcytosis of APP and lipoproteins. The endocytosis reduction could be rescued through treatment with a β-secretase inhibitor. Our data suggest that accumulation of β-CTFs of APP, but not Aβ, slow vesicle formation from an endocytic recycling compartment marked by the transcytotic GTPase Rab11. We confirm previous results that endocytosis is affected in AD and extend these to uncover a neuron-specific defect. Decreased lipoprotein endocytosis and transcytosis to the axon suggest that a neuron-specific impairment in endocytic axonal delivery of lipoproteins and other key materials might compromise synaptic maintenance in fAD.
LONDON and TUCSON, Oct. 13, 2016
The Critical Path Institute (C-Path) — part of the Critical Path for Parkinson’s Consortium (CPP) — and Parkinson’s U.K. have garnered the support of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for the use of an imaging biomarker that will help researchers conduct new treatment clinical trials for patients diagnosed with early-stage Parkinson’s disease .
The neuroimaging biomarker dopamine transporter imaging system is used as an exploratory biomarker for the early stages of Parkinson’s. CPP's ultimate goal is to achieve biomarker qualification with EMA and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
"Parkinson's disease treatments are urgently needed, and shaving off time and cost serves to incentivize companies to invest in more trials,” said CPP's executive director Diane Stephenson. “More shots on goal mean more chances of getting approved drugs past the finish line."
This, in turn, would ultimately relieve trial sponsors of having to convince the regulators that the biomarkers are reliable and reproducible during clinical trials.
Dopamine transporter activity, as measured by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging, looks at the expression of dopamine nerve terminal function in the living brain. Low levels of the binding serve as a marker of the loss of dopamine nerve terminals, which is a hallmark of Parkinson’s. Use of the biomarker in the early stages of Parkinson’s will help identify patients who are likely to show clinical progression of motor symptoms.
Embedding biomarkers in clinical trials, with support from regulatory agencies could facilitate their use as both therapeutic and prognostic indicators. "This will all happen more quickly due to the significant progress we are making in sharing data across several major studies,” said Donald Grosset, a professor at the University of Glasgow, where Parkinson's research that is contributing data to CPP is being conducted. "This action from the EMA is certainly good news for the field."
In 2015, the FDA issued a letter of support for this same biomarker and its application in drug development. These more recent letters of support convey that the FDA and EMA both recognize the potential value of a biomarker and encourage its further evaluation.
Growblox Sciences Announces Patent Application for Treatments of Parkinson’s Disease, Alzheimer’s Disease, Huntington’s Disease and Dementia
October 12, 2016 5:15 pm
Growblox Sciences, Inc.,
3550 West Teco Ave., Las Vegas, NV 89118
Investors: John Poss, firstname.lastname@example.org
Novel treatments for neurological diseases might be possible with a flexible mesh that can prod individual brain cells.
The mesh electronics—lines of gold between layers of a polymer—are produced in batches on a silicon wafer.
This close-up of the mesh shows a pad in the middle that stimulates neurons. Smaller pads measure their activity.
OCTOBER 12, 2016, BY PHIL WITT
OVERLAND PARK, Kan. -- People concerned about Parkinson’s disease now are participating in an online research project called FacePrint. The objective of it is to develop a simple, early and accurate telemedicine approach to detecting the debilitating nervous system disorder. The creator of FacePrint is a high school student and she’s this week’s FOX 4 Young Achiever.
“This breaks down the face into different component movements.”
That’s Erin Smith, this week’s FOX 4 Reaching 4 Excellence Young Achiever, demonstrating FacePrint. This remarkable research system is Erin’s baby. She developed it herself based off of biomarkers she discovered in facial muscle movements in people with and without Parkinson’s disease using facial recognition software and machine learning algorithms.
“And I get different millisecond-by-millisecond analysis of the movement of each section of the face,” said Erin as the fascinating demonstration progressed. The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson’s Research found out about Erin’s work and now the organization has FacePrint online to help her gather data from a much larger sample size and achieve her ultimate goal:
“To provide a very easy, simple and early and accurate telemedicine approach to Parkinson’s disease detection,” said Erin.
She wants to target that technology especially to primary care physicians and clinics and to developing nations where much of the anticipated increase in Parkinson’s disease cases are expected to be. This junior at Shawnee Mission West High School has been doing impressive science and technology research projects for six years already. She calls herself “perpetually curious” and approaches her painstaking work with uncommon diligence and discipline.
“It kind of becomes addicting in the sense that you get to one point and then you find out this information but then you want to know what that information means and then you have this idea based off that information and so it’s very perpetual and exciting,” said Erin.
“Erin takes advantage of every opportunity I give her,” said Brenda Bott, an award-winning science teacher who directs the Shawnee Mission School District’s rigorous and advanced Biotechnology Signature Program. Erin’s done much of her work so far under Bott’s guidance in her classroom at West High.
“You can’t stop her,” said Bott. “She thinks of something new. She thinks of the details. She records, if you talk to her, she’s writing notes. She is very good at networking. She is exemplary in listening.”
Erin’s phenomenal science and technology research has put her in the spotlight often already, especially for one still so young. She’s been very active in seeking out and winning high level national and international student competitions that have taken her far and wide demonstrating her projects.
“I’m always known as the more dramatic presenter,” said Erin with laughter. Erin is a national tournament debater, as well, and she really enjoys using her entertaining speaking skills at major science competitions and conferences like last month’s #BUILTBYGIRLS Future Founder Challenge where she won $10,000 and where can also talk movingly about this field she loves so much.
“It’s really exhilarating,” said Erin, “because it’s anything that you want to do. The sky’s the limit in terms of what you can think of and then actually being able to have an idea that may seem crazy and then being able to create it into reality. It’s one of the greatest feelings in the world.”
She’s an innovator out to heal people and keep them healthy.
“Ultimately I want to create technologies and devices that are used in different clinics throughout the world and then also in primary care physician clinics. And I also am really interested in the divide that is happening with health care. I think that there’s going to be a shift as we see it move a lot more to telemedicine approaches. And so, I want to be the one that starts having health care-related stuff on social media and technology like Snapchat. So bridge these two different trends that we are seeing in health care.”
She's addicted to discovery and blazing new trails in science and technology.
Erin also is focused on opening doors for other young people, especially girls, to advance in these STEM studies she loves. She’s founded an organization called KC STEMinists to empower girls through a hands-on approach to computer science and coding. Go to the online application, or contact Erin at email@example.com for more information and registration on KC STEMinists.
You can participate in Erin’s FacePrint research study on Parkinson’s disease in her online survey.
FOX 4 News is Working 4 You to spotlight outstanding young people and their positive accomplishments. In our weekly report called Reaching 4 Excellence we meet young achievers in subjects like academics, the arts, leadership, community service, volunteerism, career exploration, overcoming obstacles and heroism. Watch for Reaching 4 Excellence every Wednesday on FOX 4 News at 9 p.m. and every Thursday on FOX 4 News at 8 a.m. and noon.