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Welcome to Our Parkinson's Place


I copy news articles pertaining to research, news and information for Parkinson's disease, Dementia, the Brain, Depression and Parkinson's with Dystonia. I also post about Fundraising for Parkinson's disease and events. I try to be up-to-date as possible. I have Parkinson's
diseases as well and thought it would be nice to have a place where
updated news is in one place. That is why I began this blog.
I am not responsible for it's contents, I am just a copier of information searched on the computer. Please understand the copies are just that, copies and at times, I am unable to enlarge the wording or keep it uniformed as I wish. This is for you to read and to always keep an open mind.
Please discuss this with your doctor, should you have any questions, or concerns. Never do anything without talking to your doctor. I do not make any money from this website. I volunteer my time to help all of us to be informed. Please no advertisers. This is a free site for all.
Thank you.


Monday, December 23, 2013

http://www.caregiverproducts.com

I normally don't advertise a sight. I haven't purchased anything yet but this sight may help someone.

A very good site for possible items needed such as eating utensils for  hands that tremor. All different items to maintain a better  way of coping using things to make us feel independent.

http://www.caregiverproducts.com

Weighted Utensils - Silverware, Flatware, Cutlery, Cups, Plates and Bowls

Weighted utensils are ideal for those with Parkinson's Disease or hand tremors. The ergonomic designs of these Weighted Utensils help reduce hand tremors allowing more control when eating. The heavy weighted utensils help to stabilize the tremulous hand and to give proprioceptive feedback to those with sensory problems.
PRODUCTS (TOTAL ITEMS: 21)
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Left Hand Weighted Youth Teaspoon
Left Hand Weighted Youth Teaspoon
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Your Price: $12.95
Weighted Eating Utensils
Weighted Eating Utensils
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Your Price: $10.95
Youth Weighted Right Hand Fork
Youth Weighted Right Hand Fork
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Youth Weighted Right Hand Teaspoon
Youth Weighted Right Hand Teaspoon
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Freedom Standard Cupholder
Freedom Standard Cupholder
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Your Price: $24.95
Freedom No Slip Scoop Plate with Suction Pad Base
Freedom No Slip Scoop Plate with Suction Pad Base
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Freedom No Slip Divided Plate with Suction Pad Base
Freedom No Slip Divided Plate with Suction Pad Base
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Freedom LargeCup Holder
Freedom LargeCup Holder
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Youth Weighted Fork
Youth Weighted Fork
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Your Price: $11.95
Weighted Cuff for Disposable Razor
Weighted Cuff for Disposable Razor
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Left Hand Weighted Youth Fork
Left Hand Weighted Youth Fork
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Your Price: $12.95
Dysphagia Cup Almond
Dysphagia Cup Almond
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Your Price: $29.95
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Monday, November 25, 2013

New Gene Targets For Parkinson’s Treatment Found After 22,000 Individual Scans
















shutterstock_145282792
(Photo courtesy of Shutterstock.)  Researchers from the National Institutes of Health have targeted a new set of genes responsible for igniting key mechanisms of Parkinson's disease.
Scientists at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have uncovered a new batch of genes that may provide breakthrough treatment options for people suffering from Parkinson’s disease, the degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that begins with reduced motor control, and eventually worsens to include neurological decay.
In the new study, NIH researchers combed through 22,000 individual genes in order to arrive at several dozen that they believe could offer therapeutic benefits for patients suffering from Parkinson’s. Through their research, they also found certain genes that may hold the key to diseases of the mitochondria; structures often referred to as the “powerhouses” of the cell, because of their role in producing the cell’s energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), through respiration.
“We discovered a network of genes that may regulate the disposal of dysfunctional mitochondria, opening the door to new drug targets for Parkinson’s disease and other disorders,” Dr. Richard Youle a researcher at the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) and a leader of the study, said in a statement.
The study utilized RNA interference — a naturally occurring process scientists have used since 1998 to manipulate a cell’s genes — in order to investigate the effect of turning off nearly 22,000 genes individually. The team was searching for parkin, a protein that swims freely inside the cell and tags damaged mitochondria as waste. Specifically, they were investigating how silencing each gene affected parkin’s ability to tag the mitochondria, a process that, if unfulfilled, leads to an accumulation of the damaged structures inside the cell. Among the dozens they found linked to decreased parkin tagging, the team found at least four, called TOMM7, HSPAI1L, BAG4 and SIAH3, that may act as helpers.
“These genes work like quality control agents in a variety of cell types, including neurons,” said Dr. Youle, adding that some genes, such as TOMM7 and HSPAI1L, inhibited parkin tagging, while others, including BAG4 and SIAH3, enhanced tagging. “The identification of these helper genes provides the research community with new information that may improve our understanding of Parkinson’s disease and other neurological disorders.”

Currently ranked as the 14th leading cause of death in the United States, Parkinson’s affects roughly one million Americans — exceeding the combined diagnoses of multiple sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, and Lou Gehrig’s disease (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis). Approximately 60,000 Americans are newly diagnosed each year, with men roughly one-and-a-half times more likely to have the disorder than women.
Some Parkinson’s cases have been linked to mutations in the genes that code for parkin, a factor that initially prompted researchers to investigate the specific genes responsible for parkin tagging. While the specific mechanisms behind Parkinson’s aren’t well known, researchers speculate genetics and environmental factors play partial roles. The greatest symptoms of Parkinson’s originate in the decreased activity in dopamine-secreting cells in the brain, which result from mitochondria-induced cell death. Sufferers lose motor function and various cognitive processes as the disease worsens.
Being able to pinpoint which genes ultimately regulate this mitochondria function will help scientists develop treatment options that target certain genes specifically, obviating the need for blanket treatments with harsh side-effects.
“This study shows how the latest high-throughput genetic technologies can rapidly reveal insights into fundamental disease mechanisms,” said Dr. Story Landis, director of the NINDS. “We hope the results will help scientists around the world find new treatments for these devastating disorders.”
Source: Hasson S, Kane L, Yamano K. High-content genome-wide RNAi screens identify regulators of parkin upstream of mitophagy. Nature. 2013.

Friday, November 15, 2013

NEW DRUG FOR PARKINSON'S DISEASE PSYCHOSIS

2th November 2013 - New research

Lancet [2013] Oct 31 [Epub ahead of print] (J.Cummings, S.Isaacson, R.Mills, H.Williams, K.Chi-Burris, A.Corbett, R.Dhall, C.Ballard)

Parkinson's Disease psychosis, which includes hallucinations and delusions, is frequent and debilitating in some people with Parkinson's Disease. Pimavanserin, which is a serotonin 5-HT2A inverse agonist that is presently being assessed, aims to treat Parkinson's Disease psychosis. A clinical trial assessed the effect of Pimavanserin. 


They took 40mg pimavanserin per day. The primary measure was the antipsychotic benefit using the Parkinson's disease-adapted scale for assessment of positive symptoms (SAPS-PD). According to the Parkinson's disease-adapted scale for assessment of positive symptoms (SAPS-PD) those people taking pimavanserin reduced their score by 5.79 compared with a reduction of 2.73 by those taking a placebo. Over 10% of the patients discontinued because of an adverse event. However, in previous clinical trials there was either no effect or it was beneficial for some but not all measures of psychosis

THE PREVALENCE OF HEADACHES IN PARKINSON'S DISEASE

0th November 2013 - New research

Neurological Sciences [2013] Nov 7 [Epub ahead of print]  
Researchers assessed the prevalence of headache in people with Parkinson's Disease and the association between the side of Parkinon's Disease symptom onset and the side of their headache. Headaches were found to occur significantly less in people with Parkinson's Disease, 40% of whom had headaches, than in people who do not have Parkinson's Disease, 70% of whom had headaches.  The prevalence of headaches being significantly lower in people with Parkinon's Disease is unexplained by the researchers.

Fewer people with Parkinson's Disease (74%) had headaches throughout life in contrast to the 94% of people who had headaches throughout life who did not have Parkinson's Disease.  Considering only people who had headaches during the previous year, people with Parkinson's Disease had a higher association with migraine rather than tension headaches compared to people who did not have Parkinson's Disease. The headache side in people with Parkinson's Disease was also on the same side as the side of Parkinson's Disease onset in 84 % of people.

THE CAUSES OF FALLS IN PARKINSON'S DISEASE

6th November 2013 - New research

Neurologia i neurochirurgia polska [2013] 47 (5) : 423-430 (Rudzinska M, Bukowczan S, Stozek J, Zajdel K, Mirek E, Chwala W, Wójcik-Pedziwiatr M, Banaszkiewicz K, Szczudlik A.) 
Neurologia i neurochirurgia polska [2013] 47 (5) : 431-437 (Rudzinska M, Bukowczan S, Stozek J, Zajdel K, Mirek E, Chwala W, Wójcik-Pedziwiatr M, Banaszkiewicz K, Szczudlik A.) 

People with Parkinson's Disease suffer falls more frequently than most other people. Over the year falls occurred in 54% of people with Parkinson's Disease. Around 20% of people with Parkinson's Disease fell frequently. This occurred more commonly with age.

Analysis of causes of falls revealed that sudden falls were the most common (31%), followed by episodes of freezing and festination (19%), neurological and sensory disturbances (mostly vertigo) (12%), environmental factors (12%), postural instability (11%), orthostatic hypotension (4%), and severe dyskinesia (3.6%). In people with Parkinson's Disease, factors due to themselves were dominant, whereas in the control group external factors were responsible for falls with the same frequency. Every third fall intensified the fear of walking. Over a third (34%) of falls caused injuries. Among them bruises of body parts other than the head were most frequent. 

SENSORY PEN FOR DETECTING PARKINSON'S DISEASE

1st October 2013 - News release

A means of diagnosing Parkinson’s Disease is being developed by MANUS Neurodynamica using sensory pen technology. It is called the DiPAR project. The system, combining sensor and computing technology, requires the patient to perform a set of writing tasks, drawing activities or a combination of both. The system records all movements of the pen as well as other parameters such as drawing pressure, plus acceleration and deceleration of movement, to identify patterns that are indicative of specific kinds of neuromotor disorder. The sensory pen can be used by non-specialists with minimal training so that large numbers of people would be able to be screened.

The system’s software records key features regarding the movement of the pen, relating it to the motion of the limb, particularly the role of the hand and fingers in coordinating overall pen motion. The recordings enable the operator to assess akinesia, bradykinesia, tremor, rigidity and other signs of motor deterioration that cannot be easily detected by other means. The software takes inputs from a variety of sensors in the pen and converts them, using proprietary algorithms, into outcome percentages that represent the likelihood of the presence of Parkinson's Disease or other neuromotor disorders.

DEPRESSION TREBLES THE RISK OF PARKINSON'S DISEASE


3rd October 2013 - New research

Neurology [2013] Oct 2 [Epub ahead of print] (Cheng-Che Shen, Shih-Jen Tsai, Chin-Lin Perng, Benjamin Ing-Tiau Kuo, Albert C.Yang)

In the largest study of its kind, involving more than 23,000 subjects, people who had depression were found to have more than three times the chance of developing Parkinson's Disease. This suggests that depression is a strong indication of future Parkinson's Disease, even beyond that of other early indicators.
Parkinson's Disease is primarily due to the insufficient formation of dopamine in the brain, in the dopaminergic neurons. Besides affecting muscle function and therefore the characteristic muscular symptoms of Parkinson's Disease such as as rigidity and tremor, dopamine insuffiency also affects the emotions.

This is why dopamine insufficiency can also lead to depression. However, even biochemically, dopamine is not the only factor involved in depression, which is why depresssion and Parkinson's Disease do not always coincide. Therefore, depression, even when severe, does not inevitably lead to Parkinson's Disease and why it is possible to have Parkinson's Disease without also having depression.

UNDERSTANDING PARKINSON'S DISEASE : AN INTRODUCTION FOR PATIENTS AND CAREGIVERS


3rd October 2013- New book

Naheed Ali

Publisher's description :  Understanding Parkinson’s Disease offers patients and their caregivers the kind of cutting-edge information that will allow them to successfully confront this debilitating disease on a number of fronts. Patients will also be uniquely exposed to alternative approaches to managing the symptoms of the disease, including allopathic, osteopathic, and naturopathic approaches. The reader will be introduced to essential information on the risk factors associated with Parkinson’s, the signs and symptoms, the different stages of the disease, the various treatments, as well as how the disease develops. 

Friday, November 8, 2013

IMPLANT TO HELP SLOW PARKINSON’S DISEASE

 

ImplantSlider
Dr. Steven Gill has been researching the benefits of Glial-cell line Derived Neurotrophic Factor (GDNF)  in PARKINSON’S DISEASE for many years.
Together with his team of researchers from Frenchay Hospital in Bristol, United Kingdom, he had developed a new implant device to deliver GDNF directly to the affected area of the brain.
GDNF has been shown to be an especially potent factor for dopaminergic cell survival and for improving motor deficits such as those seen in PARKINSON’S DISEASE.
Finding ways to deliver GDNF to the affected areas in appropriate ways has been the challenge
The new device developed by this team consists of a small port surgically implanted behind the patient’s ear.
From this port, a system of tubes connects to the basal ganglia and regulated dose of GDNF can be pumped directly to the brain once a month.
To date, six patients have undergone this treatment and the team is now recruiting 36 more patients for a new trial.
If this treatment technology proves successful and safe, many other neurological diseases will be able to benefit from this technique.
Review by Marcia McCall

NEW DRUGS FOR PARKINSON’S DISEASE UNDER DEVELOPMENT


Lundbeck Pharma
Lundbeck Pharmaceuticals is working on developing two new drugs to treat PARKINSON’S DISEASE from two different perspectives and they have received a large grant to help fund this promising research.
The first approach is directed at eliminating or at least preventing alpha synuclein from entering the nervous system.  Presently, Lundbeck has developed a line of anti-bodies that bind with alpha-synuclein and one those anti-bodies has shown a direct effect in animal models of PARKINSON’S DISEASE.  Their hope is to develop the best antibody with the potential to slow the progression of PARKINSON’S DISEASE in people or to perhaps, eliminate it altogether.  A human medical model is still a ways off, and lots of work remains to be done, but this company is definitely up to the task.
Their next project involves creating a symptomatic treatment that does not involve the dopamine receptors in the brain.  They are focused on a so-called “orphan G-protein” in a part of the brain that controls the motor system.  Already they have several drugs that can control the activity of this protein.  Their hope for this project is to create a new type of drug for treatment of the motor symptoms of PARKINSON’S DISEASE that does not have the side effects of current medications.  We all hope that success comes SOON!
Review by Marcia McCall

MODERN VERSUS ANCIENT TREATMENT FOR PARKINSON’S DISEASE

 

OlsVSNew
PARKINSON’S DISEASE is a serious and complex neurodegenerative disease that has wide ranging effects.  The tremors, stiffness and rigidity and the slowness that PARKINSON’S DISEASE brings to the body of the affected person extends to the intellectual, emotional and social domains, too.  Every aspect of the person’s life feels the impact of this disease, and then that impact affects the people with whom that person associates.
Western modern medicine excels in attempting to treat the physiological symptoms, but is not so excellent at treating the well being of the affected person.  And therein lies a major challenge for the treatment of PARKINSON’S DISEASE.  Western medicine prides itself for being scientific and objective.  It sees diseases as discreet entities with specific causes that if eliminated or repaired will restore the body to health and thus the patient will be cured.  Diagnosis is about naming the cause and thereby providing a target at which treatment is directed and the patient becomes simply the location where that target resides.  This paradigm grants incredible authority and power to the physician and diminishes the involvement of the patient.  The elevation of technology in Western culture, with its own technological language, spoken only by “specialists” wearing white coats working with specialized high-tech medical machines really renders the patient helpless to understand what is going on and limits their ability to be involved in their own physical processes.
Modern medicine seems like a powerful miracle enacted upon the body of the patient…disease is primarily a bodily dysfunction, and it must be fought and conquered.  Even the language used to describe this is language of war…the disease causing entities (cells, virus, bacteria) are seen as “invaders” that “trigger” “waves” of reactions and  ”attack” the body’s ability to “combat” the disease”.  Research is looking for the “magic bullet”, the nation fights the “war on drugs”, people affected with a virus are “innocent victims”.
Focus of Western medicine is based on biology and chemistry…the “hard” sciences.  It is a simplification that splits the body from the mind, the disease from the patient and allows for more focus on “data”.  If “symptoms” do not show a cause in laboratory tests, imaging studies or with other “diagnostic” tools,  and if all tests are normal, then “nothing” must be wrong, or if something unusual does show up, then it is “abnormal”.  In fact, here in the United States, we have become obsessed with tracking our bodies’ functions…the use of individual blood pressure monitors, blood sugar monitors, pedometers, even “apps” on phones to remind us to record what we ate, when, or even to tell us when to do what!  We have become skilled at examining the “abnormal” symptoms of normal.
This simplification that splits body from mind has some serious consequences.  If the tests are “normal” and “nothing is wrong”, then the patient must be “imagining things”.  If it cannot be objectified or quantified it must not be “real”, or it exists only in the mind.   Only the body gets to have “real” illnesses, everything else then seems less real and possibly reflects a “character defect” or some lapse of self discipline in managing one’s emotions. This dual vision, this body/mind split is an illusion.  The body and the mind are not an either/or proposition.  This illusion is what is not real.
Today, many Western physicians recognize the oversimplification of the body/mind split, but find it very difficult to integrate into clinical practices that demand limited face to face time with a patient and expect detailed dictations.  Cultural differences have been acknowledged and the fact that cultural contexts can define how a patient understands disease.  But it is not just the culture of the patient that affects the treatment, it may also be the culture of the physician who is dispensing it.  The physician may be well trained in Western scientific medicine, but that physician also comes from a world or cultural experience that influences his/her world view and relationship to the patient.
Another area that separates the patient from their disease is the new trend and requirements for digitized records and making a person’s health information available to multiple points in diagnostic and treatment facilities.  Having a patient’s complete medical record at hand may assure more comprehensive treatment for the patient while simplifying the treatment process for the professionals involved.  But the patient as a person can feel somewhat abandoned and secondary to the professional’s attention to the computer and the need to enter every detail into the record.
PARKINSON’S DISEASE has been around for thousands of years.  It has been described in the literatures of nearly every civilization.  While today there exist many modern medicines that help treat the symptoms of this disease, there is still no known cure.  In those years before the advent of modern medicine, people found many ways to treat  and deal with this disease. They were no more able to cure the disease than modern medicine is today, yet people sought and responded to the treatments prescribed, which may or may not have been as effective as today’s treatments.  What benefit they offered perhaps came from treating the patient as a whole person, not limiting treatment to only the symptoms of the disease.
The allure of culturally alternative medicine is often that it gives the patient a measure of control over their treatment process.  It values the mind as much as the body and tries to integrate them in a more balanced approach.  Traditional Chinese or Ayurvedic medicines take into consideration a patient’s whole situation, their personal relationship, social standing, occupational, financial, familial situations.  Other cultures value the association of emotional states or experiences with physical symptoms. Symptoms are not simply data, but part of the person’s lived experience and how those symptoms are expressed and experienced are as much a part of the healing process as are the drugs and therapies used to treat them.  And, indeed, what is today modern medicine grew out the roots these sometimes ancient, but basic  practices of human wellness techniques.
 
Marcia McCall
 
Photo Credits

LASER THERAPY A NEW HOPE FOR PARKINSON’S DISEASE

 

laserbrain
Aggregates of alpha-synuclein in brain cells of people with PARKINSON’S DISEASE have long been the target of research hoping to cure or at least alleviate the symptoms of dementias often associated with PARKINSON’S DISEASE.  Newly publicized research from Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden together with Wroclaw University of Technology in Warsaw, Poland found that it is possible to use a laser driven technology to distinguish the formations of alpha-synuclein proteins from the formations of other functionally beneficial and necessary proteins in the brain.  The same technique, called “multi-photon laser technique” could also be used to eliminate those aggregated proteins..
These researchers believe that the ability to target these misfolded proteins that are believed to be part of the disease process for many dementia type diseases, including Alzheimer’s, PARKINSON’S,  and Lewy Body diseases may enable them to be destroyed by laser instead of by taking multiple drugs to counter their activity.  Photo acoustic therapies, such as these researchers discuss, has already been used to destroy cancer tumors in certain specific settings.  During this therapy, the specific light wave energy of the laser is converted to heat on targeted specific light wave sensitive receptors on the cells.  The heat generated then destroys that targeted cell.
This treatment for destroying alpha-synuclein misfolded proteins is a very new, “on the cutting edge of research” technology.  As with all new procedures and technologies, a lot of studies will need to be done before it can be made widely available to treat people with PARKINSON’S DISEASE.  It would be a non-surgically invasive procedure and would potentially reduce the use of medications while wiping out the dementia caused by accumulations of alpha-synuclein.
With Thanks to
Piotr Hanczyc, Marek Samoc, Bengt Norden. Multiphoton absorption in amyloid protein fibresNature Photonics, 2013; DOI: 10.1038/nphoton.2013.282
 
Reviewed by Marcia McCall
 
Picture Credit’s

Monday, October 14, 2013

THE LONG TERM EFFECT OF DBS ON PARKINSON'S DISEASE

13th October 2013 - New research

Journal of the Formosan Medical Association [2013] Oct 5 [Epub ahead of print] (J.L.Jiang, S.Y.Chen, T.C.Hsieh, C.W.Lee, S.H.Lin, S.T.Tsai) Complete abstract

Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS)
involves the use of electrodes that are implanted into the brain and connected to a small electrical device called a pulse generator that can be externally programmed. For more information go to Deep brain stimulation Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) has been shown to produce long-term improvements in Parkinson's Disease.
The aim of this study was to assess the improvements that can be expected after 1 year and after 5 years. Patients with Parkinson's Disease were assessed after 1 year and 5 years according to the Unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS) parts I, II, III, and IV scores, the Hoehn and Yahr stage, and Schwab and England activities of daily living (SEADL) scores in the conditions of off-medication/on-stimulation and off-medication/off-stimulation. Further analysis included the changes in the L-dopa equivalent daily dose.
After 1 year  significant improvements were seen in the UPDRS parts I, II, III, and IV and the Schwab and England scale. Five years after STN-DBS had been initiated improvements in UPDRS scores were observed only for parts II, III, and IV. In the off-medication/off-stimulation condition no significant improvement was observed. However, after 5 years there were significant deteriorations when compared to the improvements seen after 1 year in the scores for the UPDRS parts I, II, III and the Schwab and England scale.

DUAL LAYER L-DOPA CLINICAL TRIAL RESULTS

7th October 2013 - New research

Parkinsonism Related Disorders [2013] Sep 5 [Epub ahead of print] (R.Pahwa, K.E.Lyons, R.A.Hauser, S.Fahn, J.Jankovic, E.Pourcher, A.Hsu, M.O'Connell, S.Kell, S.Gupta)

L-dopa usually comes in two different formats : either the immediate release version, which satisfies the immediate need for L-dopa, or the controlled release version, which avoids the excessive effects of L-dopa by spreading out the effect over time. Dual layer L-dopa (IPX066), which is being developed for the treatment of Parkinson's Disease, has the advantages of both by combining the two types of L-dopa.

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of IPX066 assessed three dosages of L-dopa : 145mg, 245mg or 390mg taken three times daily. The main efficacy measure was the Parkinson's Disease symptom score, the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), and also the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39).
All three dosages improved Parkinson's Disease, with the 145mg dosage, then the 245mg dosage giving better results. The most commonly reported adverse events with IPX066 included nausea, dizziness, and headache. No unexpected drug-related serious adverse events were reported.
3rd October 2013 - New research
DEPRESSION TREBLES THE RISK OF PARKINSON'S DISEASE
Neurology [2013] Oct 2 [Epub ahead of print] (Cheng-Che Shen, Shih-Jen Tsai, Chin-Lin Perng, Benjamin Ing-Tiau Kuo, Albert C.Yang)

In the largest study of its kind, involving more than 23,000 subjects, people who had depression were found to have more than three times the chance of developing Parkinson's Disease. This suggests that depression is a strong indication of future Parkinson's Disease, even beyond that of other early indicators. 
Parkinson's Disease is primarily due to the insufficient formation of dopamine in the brain, in the dopaminergic neurons. Besides affecting muscle function and therefore the characteristic muscular symptoms of Parkinson's Disease such as as rigidity and tremor, dopamine insuffiency also affects the emotions.
This is why dopamine insufficiency can also lead to depression. However, even biochemically, dopamine is not the only factor involved in depression, which is why depresssion and Parkinson's Disease do not always coincide. Therefore, depression, even when severe, does not inevitably lead to Parkinson's Disease and why it is possible to have Parkinson's Disease without also having depression.